The ground water levels in Chennai and regions around the city have been falling due to lack of rainfall. On 19 june,2019 the officials in Chennai declared that DAY ZERO, the day when there is no water supply. The bone-dry reservoirs, the unplanned urbanization, cemented pavements, have led the water shortage situation in districts of Chennai. Two years of deficient rainfall, particularly in late 2017 and throughout much of previous year has led to this crisis. But the cause of crisis is not just water shortage, global warming and neglection by the water management authorities is also a reason of water scarcity. According to the composite water management index about two lakh people die every year due to inadequate access to safe water. The southern Indian reservoirs (Puzhal. Cholavaram, Chembarambakkam and Poond) went dry during summers, which overflow during monsoons and even cause floods. In a report of Niti Ayog 2018, composite water management index said that india is facing “the worst water crisis”. One of the causes for drought is the land and water temperature, in summers when there is an increase in temperature then more water evaporates which effects the weather conditions .The water during monsoons doesn’t get any large area of land where the water can accumulate in heavy density. This led the ground water level reduction in many areas of Chennai. The other reaction in nature which is a reason for draught is the constant change in the movement of weather patterns which play a major in the atmosphere to function with air circulation. The metropolitan area of Chennai which is near the coromandel coast is the biggest cultural,economic and educational centre of south india and according to the Indian census it is the fourth-most populated area in India . the city lacks a perennial water source which fails in the water requirement of the population. The increasing unplanned urbanization in the city ,faces shortage of water supply which also reflect that water levels have been depleted.
The same situation of crisis are experienced in the districts od Dehradun and gharwal , the very basic observation is the reduction of moisture in the forest floor and poor surface water and ground water availability.
Through an observation the human activities have irreversibly changed the fundamentalism of living life on earth. currently in Dehradun the situation of the rivers is worse than imagination , Rispana and bindal are declared as dumping grounds which were once the perennial rivers .The banks of the rivers face the encroachment of the slums which is also followed by the shrinking of its area , which was once almost 100m wide now has shrunk to 25m . the very basic source of water in doon valley has become poisonous. The seasonal rivers Tamsa,Song,Suswa,Gangoi river (further provides water to the Mussoorie lake) get dry during summers . The increase and decrease in temperature affects the water sources which leads to water deficiency. In 2018 and 1029 Mussoorie and nanital has faced water shortage problems due to unprecedented rush of tourist. This pressure of the rush of influx tourist is also affecting the on route places , the local residents get stuck on the traffic for hours ,the traffic also increases the pollution level. the shortage of water is not only in the hill stations but also in the plains , Dehradun,haridwar , rishikesh , udham singh nagar are places which do not receive drinking water. In the latest report of NRDWP out of 39,202 villages in Uttarakhand, only 21,363 villages have drinking water facility the rest 17,839 villages, there is water shortage due to drying of rivers and streams .More than 2000 villages do not have water supply facility which makes them fetch places to get water. The illegal water consumption by constructing personal tube wells, hand pumps reduces the ground water level and also affects the ground water table, for this the water management security departments have to be active and keep a regular survey. There are more certain reasons which leads to water deficiency, the diverting of streams from their regular routes to the fields and not allowing the stream flow to its direction. Last year UNDP conducted a drill down test in 2018, which came out with the conclusion that the infrastructural development projects like road construction, building construction harm the water ground level of water .on the other side it was found that the natural sources of water has reduced. The adjoining disaster which is also a reason for global warming and pollution is deforestation and forest fire, the sudden fire in forest affects the land and also disturbs the ground water. The forest wood which soaks the rain water also led the shortage of water. Pavement of large areas by cement and concrete which covers the land and is a barrier in recharging the water table which reduces the percolation of water and affects the area around the paved area.
This shortage and scarcity scenario of water can lead to drastic situations in upcoming global conditions. Further it’s important to be an educated and active citizen who can save water through many initiatives which involve rain water harvesting, controlling cemented pavements, reusing the left out water from water purifiers. The step to save water can only be started by uniting for a cause ,from the incidents in Chennai and other states every citizen must learn the importance of water otherwise in the upcoming years life will get worse.